Questions for discussion:
- What do you think about positive thinking? Do you think that your luck totally depends on your frame of mind?
- Is positive thinking a kind of self-hypnosis?
- In what situations positive thinking is helpful?
- In what situations can it be harmful?
- Is it essential for everyone to be optimistic?
- Do you agree, that pessimists attribute their misfortunes to inner ("I'm such a looser!"), constant ("It's always the same!") and global ("Whatever I do, everything goes wrong!") reasons? And do they attribute their luck to circumstances, unstable and contextual?
- Do you agree that optimists attribute their luck to inner, constant and global reasons ("I passed the exam. There is for my intelligence and assiduity. I'm also good at other subjects") and account their misfortunes to circumstances?
- Are you a pessimist or an optimist?
- Is being realist is neither being pessimist, nor optimist?
- What do you typically do, if things come tough:
- shut down completely;
- turn to friends/family for support;
- remind yourself to focus on the good things in your life instead of the bad;
- try to look at it from different angles in order to come up with a solution;
- refuse to give up, no matter how tough things get?
- Why do people become pessimists or optimists (under necessity of circumstances, because of inborn features of character, etc)?
- Is there pressure in our society to be always optimistic?
- "This isn't much of a recipe for making more diverse societies happier and healthier. For that, we'll need to stop chasing the notion that one or another frame of mind is the Best One To Have. Optimism, pessimism, introversion, and extraversion – maybe they can all work, except when we insist that everyone makes the same choice." Do you agree with that?
Why pessimists have a reason to be cheerful Whatever explains Japan's chart-topping life expectancy, it isn't being really chipper all the time
For critics of positive thinking like me, as well as for plain old curmudgeons (also like me, to be fair), it's an awkward truth that an optimistic outlook does seem to lead to a healthier life. Scientists, with their annoying fixation on facts, have published study
after study suggesting that an upbeat attitude protects you from cancer, heart disease and stroke. In one big analysis
of American women, the most optimistic were 29% less likely to die, during a six-year follow-up, than the least; in another
, involving men too, people with positive views of ageing ended up living longer.
At last, though, we pessimists have something to fight back with: a new study
in Psychological Science, highlighted on the Research Digest
blog, that compared levels of optimism, cholesterol and body weight among people in the US and Japan. It found Americans are much likelier to have healthier cholesterol, and less likely to be overweight, if they're chipper. But there was no such connection among the Japanese. Whatever explains Japan's chart-topping life expectancy – lots of fish, a strong tradition of family care for the elderly – it isn't being really cheerful all the time.
What's going on? In these studies, it's notoriously hard to say what's causing what. (Maybe it's being healthy that makes you optimistic, not vice versa.) But one plausible explanation for the new finding, which the researchers endorse, is that American optimists are healthier because optimism, in the US, is a strongly reinforced cultural value. You're supposed to feel happy, and to show it. Whereas in east Asian cultures, as lead researcher Jiah Yoo put it
, "people commonly view positive emotions as having dark sides – they are fleeting, may attract unnecessary attention from others, and can be a distraction from focusing on important tasks".
In other words, maybe it's not optimism per se, but being in tune with the prevailing culture, that makes American optimists healthier. Remove the cultural pressure to be happy, and pessimists get to have healthy cholesterol levels, too. That also might explain the 2015 finding
that happiness doesn't make British women live longer, either. Say what you like about British culture, but an unrelenting pressure to seem ultra-happy isn't among its faults.
If I'm honest, though, none of this really proves my point that miserabilism has its upsides. What it implies, more uncomfortably, is that you're likelier to be happy and healthy if you share the attitudes and culture of the people around you. It's surely no coincidence that the populations held up as bastions of contentment – notably the Danes, inventors of hygge, and the Japanese, for that matter – tend to be homogenous, rather than diverse. Perhaps the key isn't their outlook on life, but the fact that everyone they meet shares it?
This isn't much of a recipe for making more diverse societies happier and healthier. For that, we'll need to stop chasing the notion that one or another frame of mind is the Best One To Have. Optimism, pessimism, introversion, extraversion – maybe they can all work, except when we insist that everyone makes the same choice.